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W&H MAIN YARDS: Steam Locomotive Wheel Arrangements

By Richard BoylanStratus

All the locomotives listed here actually operated at one time or another on a North American railroad. This includes common carriers, elevated railways,cog railways and logging roads.

Whyte's system of classification is used to describe the wheel arrangementof conventional steam locomotives. In this system, the first number is thenumber of leading wheels, and the last is the number of trailing wheels. The middle number (or numbers) give the number and arrangement of drivers.

A "T"at the end indicates a tank engine. The system normally used to describe diesel-electric locomotives has also been used here for steam turbine electric locomotives. In this system,non-powered axles are given as numbers and powered axles are given as letters.There is no standard system of classification for geared locomotives such as Shays, Heislers and Climaxes. Instead, a brief description is given for each.

Arrangement    Name                 Notes   
0-2-2-0                             The locomotives of the Mt. Washington      
                                    Cog Railroad are examples of this type.
0-4-0          Four-coupled
0-4-4T         Forney four-coupled
0-4-6T         Forney four-coupled
0-6-0          Six-coupled
0-6-4T         Forney six-coupled
0-6-6T         Forney six-coupled
0-6-6-0                            First example built 1904 for the 
                                   Baltimore & Ohio. It was this first Mallet 
                                   articulated built in the U.S.
0-8-0          Eight-coupled
0-8-2                              Many examples of this type were 2-8-2's 
                                   that had been modified for yard work.
0-10-0         Ten-coupled
0-10-2         Union               Five examples built in 1936 for the 
                                   Union Railroad of Pittsburgh.
0-12-0                             One example built in 1863 for the 
                                   Philadelpia & Reading.
2-2-0          Planet
2-2-2          Single
2-4-2          Columbia            First examples shown at the 1893 Columbian  
                                   exposition in Chicago.
2-6-0          Mogul
2-6-2          Prairie             First examples built in 1900 for the 
                                   Chicago, Burlington and Quincy.
2-6-4          Adriatic
2-6-6-6        Allegheny          First examples built for the Chesapeake & 
                                  Ohio in 1941.
               Blue Ridge         (Virginian)
2-6-8-0                           The Southern and the Great Northern 
                                  had the sole examples of this type.
2-8-0          Consolidation      First example built 1866 for the 
                                  Lehigh Valley, which had recently merged 
                                  in several smaller roads.
2-8-2          Mikado             First examples built 1897 by Baldwin for 
                                  export to Mike Japan.  
                                  MacArthur (World War II era)
2-8-4          Berkshire          First example built 1925 by the Lima 
                                  Locomotive works. Early tests were on the 
                                  Boston & Albany. 
               Kanawha            (Chesapeake & Ohio)
2-8-8-2        Chesapeake         (Chesapeake & Ohio)
2-8-8-4        Yellowstone        First examples built in 1928 for the 
                                  Northern Pacific.
2-8-8-8-2      Triplex            First example built in 1913 for the Erie.    
                                  Wheel arrangement also supported the tender.
2-8-8-8-4      Triplex            One example built in 1919 for the Virginian. 
                                  Wheel arrangement also supported the tender.
2-10-0         Decapod            First two examples built 1867 for the Lehigh 
2-10-2         Santa Fe           First examples built in 1903 for the 
                                  Santa Fe.               
               Central            (Illinois Central)               
               Decapod            (Southern Pacific)
2-10-4         Texas              First examples built in 1925 for the 
                                  Texas & Pacific.               
               Colorado           (Burlington)               
               Selkirk            (Canadian Pacific)
4-2-0          Six wheeler               
               Jervis             John B. Jervis, of the Mohawk & Hudson, 
                                  invented this type in 1832.
4-2-2          Bicycle
4-4-0          American               
               Eight wheeler
4-4-2          Atlantic           Aside from two examples built in 1887 
                                  and 1888, first examples built in 1895 
                                  for the Atlantic Coast Line.               
4-4-4          Reading            First examples built in 1915 for the Reading.
               Jubilee            (Canadian Pacific)
4-4-4-4        Baltimore & Ohio   (Baltimore & Ohio)                         
                                  One example built in 1937 for the 
                                  Baltimore & Ohio. 52 examples built in 
                                  1942 and 1945 by the Pennsylvania Railroad.
4-4-6                             Four-coupled double-ender
4-4-6-2                           Two examples built in 1909 for the Santa Fe.
4-4-6-4                           26 examples built in 1944 by the Pennsylvania
4-6-0         Ten wheeler
4-6-2         Pacific             Early examples built by Baldwin for 
                                  New Zealand railways in 1901.
4-6-4         Hudson              First examples built 1927 for the 
                                  New York Central.          
              Baltic              (Milwaukee Road)          
              Shore Line          (New Haven)
4-6-4-4                           One example built in 1942 by the 
                                  Pennsylvania Railroad.
4-6-6-4       Challenger
4-8-0         Twelve wheeler          
              Mastodon           An early example, named Mastodon, was built 
                                 by the Central Pacific in 1882.
4-8-2         Mountain           First examples built in 1911 for the 
                                 Chesapeake & Ohio.          
              Mohawk             (New York Central)
4-8-4         Northern           Aside from one example built in 1921 
                                 for the Santa Fe, the first examples were 
                                 built in 1927 for the Northern Pacific.       
              Confederation      (Canadian National)          
              Dixie              (Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis and 
                                  other Southern Roads)          
              Golden State       (Southern Pacific)          
              Greenbriar         (Chesapeake & Ohio)          
              Montana            (what railroad?)          
              Niagara            (New York Central)          
              Niagra             (Nacionales de Mexico)          
              Pocono             (Lackawanna)          
              Potomac            (Western Maryland)          
              Wyoming            (Lehigh Valley)
4-8-8-2                          X Examples built 19xx for the Southern 
4-8-8-4       Big Boy            25 examples built in 1941 for the Union 
4-10-0        Mastodon           First example, named El Gobernador, built 
                                 in 1883 by the Central Pacifc.
4-10-2        Southern Pacific          
              Overland           (Union Pacific)
4-12-2        Union Pacific      88 examples built starting in 1926 for the 
                                 Union Pacific.
6-2-0         Crampton           Three examples built in 1849 for the Camden   
                                 & Amboy.
6-4-4-6       Pennsylvania       (Pennsylvania) One example built in 1939 by 
                                 the Pennsylvania Railroad.
6-8-6                            Steam turbine, direct drive. One example 
                                 built in 1944 for the Pennsylvania.
2+C+C+2                          Steam turbine electric. Flash boiler. 
                                 One example built in 1938 for the 
                                 Union Pacific.
2+D+2+D+2                        Steam turbine electric. Three examples built 
                                 in 1949 for the Chesapeake & Ohio.
C+C+C+C      Jawn Henry          Steam turbine electric. One example built in 
                                 1955 for the Norfolk & Western.
2-truck Shay                     Geared. 4-wheel trucks.
3-truck Shay                     Geared. 4-wheel trucks.
4-truck Shay                     Geared. 4-wheel trucks.
Heisler                          Geared.
2-truck Climax                   Geared.
3-truck Climax                  Geared.

Abdill, George B.  A Locomotive Engineer's Album.  New York:  
Bonanza Books, 1965.
Alexander, Edwin P.  Iron Horses:  American Steam Locomotives,     
1829-1900.  New York:  Bonanza Books, 1941.
Alexander, Edwin P.  The Pennsylvania Railroad:  A Pictorial History.     
New York:  Bonanza Books, 1947.
Alexander, Edwin P.  American Steam Locomotives:  A Pictorial Record of     
Steam Power, 1900-1950.  New York:  Bonanza Books, 1950.
Comstock, Henry B.  The Iron Horse.  Galahad Press, 1971.Holbrook, 
Stewart H.  The Story of American Railroads.  New York:  Crown Publishers, 
Keefe, Kevin P.  ABC's of Railroading.  Trains Magazine, May 1991.
MacBride, H. A.  Trains Rolling.  New York: MacMillan, 1953.
Morgan, David P.  Steam's Finest Hour.  Milwaukee: Kalmbach Books, 1959.
Morgan, David P.  The Mohawk that Refused to Abdicate.  Milwaukee:     
Kalmbach Books, 1975.
Locomotive & Railway Preservation Magazine 
Railroad Magazine
Trains Magazine
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